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Research Citations

Fruit, Vegetable & Nutrient Blends


Acerola & Rose Hips


Aparecida de Assis S et al. Antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and total phenol of exotic fruits occurring in Brazil. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2008 Sep 10:1-10 Hanamura T and Aoki H. Toxicological evaluation of polyphenol extract from Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) fruit. J Food Sci. 2008 May;73(4):T55-61.


Hanamura T, Hagiwara T and Kawagishi H. Structural and functional characterization of polyphenols isolated from acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) fruit. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005 Feb;69(2):280-6.


Hanamura T et al. Antihyperglycemic effect of polyphenols from Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) fruit. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006 Aug;70(8):1813-20. Kawaguchi M, Tanabe H and Nagamine K. Isolation and characterization of a novel flavonoid possessing a 4,2”-glycosidic linkage from green mature acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) fruit. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007 May;71(5):1130-5


Motohashi N et al. Biological activity of barbados cherry (acerola fruits, fruit of Malpighia emarginata DC) extracts and fractions. Phytother Res 18: 212-223, 2004


Wakabayashi H et al. Inhibition of LPS-stimulated NO production in mouse macrophage-like cells by Barbados cherry, a fruit of Malpighia emarginata DC. Anticancer Res. 2003 Jul-Aug;23(4):3237-41.



Berry Research


Ahmet I et al. Survival and cardioprotective benefits of long-term blueberry enriched diet in dilated cardiomyopathy following myocardial infarction in rats. PLoS One. 2009 Nov 19;4(11):e7975.


Bachi D et al. Safety and whole-body antioxidant potential of a novel anthocyanin-rich formulation of edible berries. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006 Jan;281(1-2):197-209.


Borges G et al. Identification of Flavonoid and Phenolic Antioxidants in Black Currants, Blueberries, Raspberries, Red Currants, and Cranberries (dagger). J Agric Food Chem.. [Epub ahead of print]


Duthie SJ. Berry phytochemicals, genomic stability and cancer: evidence for chemoprotection at several stages in the carcinogenic process. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Jun;51(6):665-74


Ferrrara P. Cranberry juice for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections: a randomized controlled trial in children. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2009;43(5):369-72.


Huang C et al. Differential inhibition of UV-induced activation of NF kappa B and AP-1 by extracts from black raspberries, strawberries, and blueberries. Nutr Cancer. 2007;58(2):205-12.


Huang C et al. Black raspberry extracts inhibit benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide-induced activator protein 1 activation and VEGF transcription by targeting the phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Cancer Res. 2006 Jan 1;66(1):581-7.


Hurst RD et al. Blueberry fruit polyphenolics suppress oxidative stress-induced skeletal muscle cell damage in vitro. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Nov 2. [Epub ahead of print]


Joseph JA et al. Blueberry supplementation enhances signaling and prevents behavioral deficits in an Alzheimer disease model. Nutr Neurosci 2003; 6: 153-162. Karlsen A et al. Bilberry juice modulates plasma concentration of NF-kappaB related inflammatory markers in subjects at increased risk of CVD. Eur J Nutr. 2010 Feb 2. [Epub ahead of print]


Lee IT et al. Effect of cranberry extracts on lipid profiles in subjects with Type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2008 Dec;25(12):1473-7. Li J et al. Differential effects of black raspberry and strawberry extracts on BaPDE-induced activation of transcription factors and their target genes. Mol Carcinog. 2008 Apr;47(4):286-94.


Magarinos HL et al. In vitro inhibitory effect of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpom Ait.) juice on pathogenic microorganisms. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2008 May-Jun;44(3):333-6.


Mauray A et al. Atheroprotective effects of bilberry extracts in apo E-deficient mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57(23):11106-11.


Matsunaga N et al. Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) Extracts Reduce Angiogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2010; 7(1):47.


Persson IA, Persson K and Andersson RG. Effect of Vaccinium myrtillus and its polyphenols on angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in human endothelial cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Jun 10;57(11):4626-9.


Seeram N. Berry fruits for cancer prevention: current status and future prospects. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Feb 13;56(3):630-5


Seeram NP et al. Blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in vitro. J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Dec 13;54(25):9329-39.


Shaughnessy KS et al. Diets containing blueberry extract lower blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats. Nutr Res. 2009 Feb;29(2):130-8.


Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M et al. Chemical composition and potential health effects of prunes: a functional food? Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2001 May;41(4):251-86.


Stothers L. A randomized trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost effectiveness of naturopathic cranberry products as prophylaxis against urinary tract infection in women. Can J Urol. 2002 Jun;9(3):1558-62.


Takikawa M et al. Dietary anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in diabetic mice. JNutr. 2010;140(3):527-33. Epub 2010 Jan 20.


Torri E et al. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of blueberry extract (Vaccinium corymbosum). J Pharm Pharmacol. 2007 Apr;59(4):591-6.


Zafra-Stone S et al. Berry anthocyanins as novel antioxidants in human health and disease prevention. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Jun;51(6):675-83





Inoue T et al. Tropical fruit camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. J Cardiol. 2008 Oct;52(2):127-32


Justi KC et al. Nutritional composition and vitamin C stability in stored camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) pulp. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2000 Dec;50(4):405-8.


Zanatta CF et al. Determination of anthocyanins from camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) by HPLC-PDA, HPLC-MS, and NMR. J Agric Food Chem 2005; 53: 9531-9535.



Citrus Bioflavanoids


Aranganathan S et al. Modulatory efficacy of hesperetin (citrus flavanone) on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis. Chem Biol Interact. 2009 Jul 15;180(2):254-61


Aranganathan S, Selvam JP and Nalini N. Effect of hesperetin, a citrus flavonoid, on bacterial enzymes and carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci in colon cancer rats: a dose-dependent study. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2008 Oct;60(10):1385-92.


Benavente-Garcia O and Castillo J. Update on uses and properties of citrus flavonoids: new findings in anticancer, cardiovascular, and anti-inflammatory activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Aug 13;56(15):6185-205


Benavente-Garcia O et al. Beneficial action of Citrus flavonoids on multiple cancer-related biological pathways. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2007 Dec;7(8):795-809.


Garcia-Lafuente A et al. Flavonoids as anti-inflammatory agents: implications in cancer and cardiovascular disease. Inflamm Res. 2009 Sep;58(9):537-52


Manthey JA, Grohmann K, Guthrie N. Biological properties of citrus flavonoids pertaining to cancer and inflammation. Curr Med Chem. 2001 Feb;8(2):135-53.


Middleton E. Effect of plant flavonoids on immune and inflammatory cell function. Adv Exp Med Biol 1998; 439: 175-182


Vinson JA and Bose P. Comparative bioavailability to humans of ascorbic acid alone or in a citrus extract. Am J Clin Nutr 1988; 48: 601-604.



Grape Seed


Bagchi D et al. Free radicals and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract: importance in human health and disease prevention. Toxicology 2000; 148: 187-197.


Bagchi D et al. Cellular protection with proanthocyanidins derived from grape seeds. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 May;957:260-70.


Clifton PM. Effect of Grape Seed Extract and Quercetin on Cardiovascular and Endothelial Parameters in High-Risk Subjects. J Biomed Biotechnol 2004: 272-278, 2004.


Del Bas JM et al. Dietary procyanidins lower triglyceride levels signaling through the nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 Oct;52(10):1172-81


Dohadwala MM and Vita JA. Grapes and cardiovascular disease. J Nutr. 2009 Sep;139(9):1788S-93S


Kar P et al. Effects of grape seed extract in Type 2 diabetic subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial examining metabolic markers, vascular tone, inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity. Diabet Med. 2009 May;26(5):526-31.


Kaur M, Agarwal C and Agarwal R. Anticancer and cancer chemopreventive potential of grape seed extract and other grape-based products. J Nutr. 2009 Sep;139(9):1806S-12S


Kaur M et al. Grape seed extract inhibits in vitro and in vivo growth of human colorectal carcinoma cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Oct 15;12(20 Pt 1):6194-202.


La VD et al. Grape seed extract suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) secretion by macrophages and inhibits human MMP-1 and -9 activities. J Periodontol. 2009 Nov;80(11):1875-82.


Pezzuto JM. Grapes and human health: a perspective. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Aug 27;56(16):6777-84


Pezzuto JM et al. Unraveling the relationship between grapes and health. J Nutr. 2009 Sep;139(9):1783S-7S


Sivaprakasapillai B et al. Effect of grape seed extract on blood pressure in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Metabolism. 2009 Dec;58(12):1743-6


Velmurugan B et al. Dietary feeding of grape seed extract prevents intestinal tumorigenesis in APCmin/+ mice. Neoplasia. 2010 Jan;12(1):95-102.


Wen W et al. Grape seed extract inhibits angiogenesis via suppression of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway. Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa). 2008 Dec;1(7):554-61.


Zhang FL, Gao HQ and Shen L. Inhibitory effect of GSPE on RAGE expression induced by advanced glycation end products in endothelial cells. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2007 Oct;50(4):434-40.


Zunino S. Type 2 diabetes and glycemic response to grapes or grape products. J Nutr. 2009 Sep;139(9):1794S-800S



Vegetable & Nutrient Blend


Blackstrap Molasses


Phillips KM, Carlsen MH and Blomhoff R. Total antioxidant content of alternatives to refined sugar. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Jan;109(1):64-71



Nutritional (Vegetarian) Yeast


Donaldson MS. Metabolic vitamin B12 status on a mostly raw vegan diet with follow-up using tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements. Ann Nutr Metab. 2000;44(5-6):229-34.


El-Bayoumy K et al. Influence of selenium-enriched yeast supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative damage and hormone status in healthy adult males: a clinical pilot study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 Nov;11(11):1459-65.


Moyad MA. Brewer’s/baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and preventive medicine: Part I. Urol Nurs. 2007 Dec;27(6):560-1.


Moyad MA. Brewer’s/baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and preventive medicine: Part II. Urol Nurs. 2008 Feb;28(1):73-5.


Racek J et al. Influence of chromium-enriched yeast on blood glucose and insulin variables, blood lipids, and markers of oxidative stress in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2006 Mar;109(3):215-30.


Vinson JA, Tompkins TA and Agbor GA. Comparative bioavailability of mineral-enriched gluconates and yeast in rat liver after depletion-repletion feeding. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2007 Aug;118(2):104-10.



Organic Olive Extract


Cornwell DG and Ma J. Nutritional benefit of olive oil: the biological effects of hydroxytyrosol and its arylating quinone adducts. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Oct 8;56(19):8774-86


Jemai H, El Feki A and Sayadi S. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein from olive leaves in alloxan-diabetic rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Oct 14;57(19):8798-804.


Readerstorff. Antioxidant Activity of Olive Polyphenols in Humans: a Review. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2009 May;79(3):152-165.


Rietjens SJ, Bast A and Haenen G. New insights into controversies on the antioxidant potential of the olive oil antioxidant hydroxytyrosol. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Sep 5;55(18):7609-14.


Rietjens SJ et al. The olive oil antioxidant hydroxytyrosol efficiently protects against the oxidative stress-induced impairment of the NObullet response of isolated rat aorta. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Apr;292(4):H1931-6.


Visioli F and Galli C. Biological properties of olive oil phytochemicals. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2002;42(3):209-21.


Vissers MN, Zock PL and Katan M. Bioavailability and antioxidant effects of olive oil phenols in humans: a review. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jun;58(6):955-65.


Zhu L et al. Hydroxytyrosol protects against oxidative damage by simultaneous activation of mitochondrial biogenesis and phase II detoxifying enzyme systems in retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Feb 8. [Epub ahead of print]



Rice Bran


Ardiansyah et al. Rice bran fractions improve blood pressure, lipid profile, and glucose metabolism in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Agric Food Chem 54: 1914-1920, 2006.



Shiitake Mushroom


Fang N et al. Inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in human cancer cell lines by an ethyl acetate fraction from shiitake mushrooms. J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Mar;12(2):125-32.


Israilides C et al. In vitro cytostatic and immunomodulatory properties of the medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes. Phytomedicine. 2008 Jun;15(6-7):512-9


Ko JA et al. Effect of UV-B exposure on the concentration of vitamin D2 in sliced shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) and white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). J Agric Food Chem. 2008 May 28;56(10):3671-4.


Kuppusamy UR et al. Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) mushroom extract protects against hydrogen peroxide induced cytotoxicity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2009 Apr;46(2):161-5.


Ng ML and Yap AT. Inhibition of human colon carcinoma development by lentinan from shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes). J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Oct;8(5):581-9.


Sia GM and Candlish JK. Effects of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) extract on human neutrophils and the U937 monocytic cell line. Phytother Res. 1999 Mar;13(2):133-7.



Vegetable Research


Basu A and Imrhan V. Tomatoes versus lycopene in oxidative stress and carcinogenesis: conclusions from clinical trials. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar;61(3):295-303.


Brooks JD, Paton VG and Vidanes G. Potent induction of phase 2 enzymes in human prostate cells by sulforaphane. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001 Sep;10(9):949-54.


Cornblatt BS et al. Preclinical and clinical evaluation of sulforaphane for chemoprevention in the breast. Carcinogenesis. 2007 Jul;28(7):1485-90


Eberhardt MV et al. Correlation analyses of phytochemical composition, chemical, and cellular measures of antioxidant activity of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Var. italica). J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Sep 21;53(19):7421-31.


Fahey JW, Zhang Y and Talalay P. Broccoli sprouts: an exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Sep 16;94(19):10367-72.


Galan MV, Kishan AA and Silverman AL. Oral broccoli sprouts for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: a preliminary report. Dig Dis Sci. 2004 Aug;49(7-8):1088-90


Higdon JV et al. Cruciferous vegetables and human cancer risk: epidemiologic evidence and mechanistic basis. Pharmacol Res. 2007 Mar;55(3):224-36


Johnson IT. Glucosinolates: bioavailability and importance to health. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2002 Jan;72(1):26-31.


Keck AS and Finley JW. Cruciferous vegetables: cancer protective mechanisms of glucosinolate hydrolysis products and selenium. Integr Cancer Ther. 2004 Mar;3(1):5-12.


Lynn A et al. Cruciferous vegetables and colo-rectal cancer. Proc Nutr Soc. 2006 Feb;65(1):135-44.


Porrini M, Riso P and Oriani G. Spinach and tomato consumption increases lymphocyte DNA resistance to oxidative stress but this is not related to cell carotenoid concentrations. Eur J Nutr. 2002 Jun;41(3):95-100.


Riedl MA, Saxon A and Diaz-Sanchez D. Oral sulforaphane increases Phase II antioxidant enzymes in the human upper airway. Clin Immunol. 2009 Mar;130(3):244-51


Talalay P and Fahey JW. Phytochemicals from cruciferous plants protect against cancer by modulating carcinogen metabolism. J Nutr. 2001 Nov;131(11 Suppl):3027S-33S.


Vasanthi HR, Mukherjee S and Das DK. Potential health benefits of broccoli- a chemico-biological overview. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2009 Jun;9(6):749-59.


Vivar OI et al. 3,3′-Diindolylmethane induces a G(1) arrest in human prostate cancer cells irrespective of androgen receptor and p53 status. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009 Sep 1;78(5):469-76.


Yanaka A et al. Dietary sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprouts reduce colonization and attenuate gastritis in Helicobacter pylori-infected mice and humans. Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa). 2009 Apr;2(4):353-60.


Yeh CT and Yen GC. Effect of vegetables on human phenolsulfotransferases in relation to their antioxidant activity and total phenolics. Free Radic Res. 2005 Aug;39(8):893-904.



Antioxidant Blend


Mixed Carotenoids


Chidambara Murthy KN, Vanitha A, Rajesha J, Mahadeva SM, Sowmya PR and Ravishankar GA. In vivo antioxidant activity of carotenoids from Dunaliella salina–a green microalga. Life Sci 2005; 76: 1381-1390.


Krinsky NI. The antioxidant and biological properties of the carotenoids. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998 Nov 20;854:443-7


Larsson SC, Bergkvist L and Wolk A. Dietary carotenoids and risk of hormone receptor-defined breast cancer in a prospective cohort of Swedish women. Eur J Cancer. 2010 Jan 27. [Epub ahead of print]


Moukarzel AA, Bejjani RA and Fares FN. Xanthophylls and eye health of infants and adults. J Med Liban. 2009 Oct-Dec;57(4):261-7.


Murthy KN et al. Comparative evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of carotenoids of microalgae. J Med Food. 2005 Winter;8(4):523-8.


Ye ZW, Jiang JG and Wu GH. Biosynthesis and regulation of carotenoids in Dunaliella: progresses and prospects. Biotechnol Adv. 2008 Jul-Aug;26(4):352-60



Mixed Tocopherols


Burton GW et al. Human plasma and tissue alpha-tocopherol concentrations in response to supplementation with deuterated natural and synthetic vitamin E. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Apr;67(4):669-84.


Chopra RK and Bhagavan HN. Relative bioavailabilities of natural and synthetic vitamin E formulations containing mixed tocopherols in human subjects. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1999; 69: 92-95.


Dietrich M et al. Does gamma-tocopherol play a role in the primary prevention of heart disease and cancer? A review. J Am Coll Nutr. 2006 Aug;25(4):292-9.


Jiang Q and Ames BN. Gamma-tocopherol, but not alpha-tocopherol, decreases proinflammatory eicosanoids and inflammation damage in rats. FASEB J. 2003 May;17(8):816-22.


Jiang Q et al. A combination of aspirin and gamma-tocopherol is superior to that of aspirin and alpha-tocopherol in anti-inflammatory action and attenuation of aspirin-induced adverse effects. J Nutr Biochem. 2009 Nov;20(11):894-900.


Jiang Q et al. gamma-Tocopherol or combinations of vitamin E forms induce cell death in human prostate cancer cells by interrupting sphingolipid synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Dec 21;101(51):17825-30.


Jiang Q et al. gamma-tocopherol, the major form of vitamin E in the US diet, deserves more attention. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Dec;74(6):714-22


Landrier JF et al. Vitamin E decreases endogenous cholesterol synthesis and apo-AI-mediated cholesterol secretion in Caco-2 cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Feb 8. [Epub ahead of print]


Lee HJ et al. Mixed tocopherols prevent mammary tumorigenesis by inhibiting estrogen action and activating PPAR-gamma. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Jun 15;15(12):4242-9.


Reitera E, Jiang Q and Christen S. Anti-inflammatory properties of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol. Mol Aspects Med. 2007 Oct-Dec;28(5-6):668-91.


Wagner KH, Kamal-Eldin A and Elmadfa I. Gamma-tocopherol–an underestimated vitamin? Ann Nutr Metab. 2004;48(3):169-88.


Wolf G. How an increased intake of alpha-tocopherol can suppress the bioavailability of gamma-tocopherol. Nutr Rev. 2006 Jun;64(6):295-9


Yu W et al. Anticancer actions of natural and synthetic vitamin E forms: RRR-alpha-tocopherol blocks the anticancer actions of gamma-tocopherol. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Dec;53(12):1573-81.



Pine Bark Extract


Canali R et al. The anti-inflammatory pharmacology of Pycnogenol in humans involves COX-2 and 5-LOX mRNA expression in leukocytes. Int Immunopharmacol. 2009 Sep;9(10):1145-9


Cisar P et al. Effect of pine bark extract (Pycnogenol) on symptoms of knee osteoarthritis. Phytother Res. 2008 Aug;22(8):1087-92


Devaraj S et al. Supplementation with a pine bark extract rich in polyphenols increases plasma antioxidant capacity and alters the plasma lipoprotein profile. Lipids. 2002 Oct;37(10):931-4.


Liu X, Zhou HJ and Rohdewald P. French maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol dose-dependently lowers glucose in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2004 Mar;27(3):839.


Liu X et al. Pycnogenol, French maritime pine bark extract, improves endothelial function of hypertensive patients. Life Sci. 2004 Jan 2;74(7):855-62.


Liu X et al. Antidiabetic effect of Pycnogenol French maritime pine bark extract in patients with diabetes type II. Life Sci. 2004 Oct 8;75(21):2505-13.


Nishioka K et al. Pycnogenol, French maritime pine bark extract, augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans. Hypertens Res. 2007 Sep;30(9):775-80.


Rohdewald P. review of the French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol), a herbal medication with a diverse clinical pharmacology. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Apr;40(4):158-68.


Rohdewald P and Beil W. In vitro inhibition of Helicobacter pylori growth and adherence to gastric mucosal cells by Pycnogenol. Phytother Res. 2008 May;22(5):685-8.


Schafer A et al. Inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 activity by plasma of human volunteers after ingestion of French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol). Biomed Pharmacother. 2006 Jan;60(1):5-9


Suzuki N et al. French maritime pine bark extract significantly lowers the requirement for analgesic medication in dysmenorrhea: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Reprod Med. 2008 May;53(5):338-46


Trebaticka J et al. Treatment of ADHD with French maritime pine bark extract, Pycnogenol. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006 Sep;15(6):329-35





Clifton PM. Effect of Grape Seed Extract and Quercetin on Cardiovascular and Endothelial Parameters in High-Risk Subjects. J Biomed Biotechnol 2004: 272-278, 2004.


Crespo I et al. A comparison of the effects of kaempferol and quercetin on cytokine-induced pro-inflammatory status of cultured human endothelial cells. Br J Nutr. 2008 Nov;100(5):968-76


Edwards RL et al. Quercetin reduces blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. J Nutr. 2007 Nov;137(11):2405-11.


Egert S et al. Quercetin reduces systolic blood pressure and plasma oxidised low-density lipoprotein concentrations in overweight subjects with a high-cardiovascular disease risk phenotype: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Br J Nutr. 2009 Oct;102(7):1065-74


Egert S et al. Serum lipid and blood pressure responses to quercetin vary in overweight patients by apolipoprotein E genotype. J Nutr. 2010 Feb;140(2):278-84


Nieman DC et al. Quercetin reduces illness but not immune perturbations after intensive exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Sep;39(9):1561-9.


Perez-Vizcaino F, Duarte J, Andriantsitohaina R. Endothelial function and cardiovascular disease: effects of quercetin and wine polyphenols. Free Radic Res. 2006 Oct;40(10):1054-65.


Perez-Vizcaino F et al. Antihypertensive effects of the flavonoid quercetin. Pharmacol Rep. 2009 Jan-Feb;61(1):67-75.


Potenza L et al. Effect of quercetin on oxidative nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage. Biofactors. 2008;33(1):33-48.





Allard JS et al. Dietary activators of Sirt1. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009 Feb 5;299(1):58-63.


Kaindl U et al. The dietary antioxidants resveratrol and quercetin protect cells from exogenous pro-oxidative damage. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Apr;46(4):1320-6


Karuppagounder SS et al. Dietary supplementation with resveratrol reduces plaque pathology in a transgenic model of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurochem Int. 2009 Feb;54(2):111-8


Losa GA. Resveratrol modulates apoptosis and oxidation in human blood mononuclear cells. Eur J Clin Invest. 2003 Sep;33(9):818-23.


Nicholson SK, Tucker GA and Brameld JM. Effects of dietary polyphenols on gene expression in human vascular endothelial cells. Proc Nutr Soc. 2008 Feb;67(1):42-7.


Shakibaei M et al. Resveratrol suppresses interleukin-1beta-induced inflammatory signaling and apoptosis in human articular chondrocytes: potential for use as a novel nutraceutical for the treatment of osteoarthritis. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008 Dec 1;76(11):1426-39


Wallerath T et al. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin present in red wine, enhances expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Circulation. 2002 Sep 24;106(13):1652-8.


Wu JM et al. Mechanism of cardioprotection by resveratrol, a phenolic antioxidant present in red wine (Review). Int J Mol Med. 2001 Jul;8(1):3-17.


SOD Precursor System


DiSilvestro RA, Marten J and Skehan M. Effects of copper supplementation on ceruloplasmin and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase in free-living rheumatoid arthritis patients. J Am Coll Nutr 11: 177-180, 1992.


Tuncer S et al. Trace element and magnesium levels and superoxide dismutase activity in rheumatoid arthritis. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1999 May;68(2):137-42.



Vitamin and Mineral Blend


Chelated Mineral Research


Ashmead HD. The absorption and metabolism of iron amino acid chelate. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2001 Mar;51(1 Suppl 1):13-21.


Ashmead SD. The chemistry of ferrous bis-glycinate chelate. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2001 Mar;51(1 Suppl 1):7-12


Bovell-Benjamin AC, Viteri FE and Allen LH. Iron absorption from ferrous bisglycinate and ferric trisglycinate in whole maize is regulated by iron status. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jun;71(6):1563-9.


Fox TE, Eagles J and Fairweather-Tait SJ. Bioavailability of iron glycine as a fortificant in infant foods. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Apr;67(4):664-8.


Gandia P et al. A bioavailability study comparing two oral formulations containing zinc (Zn bis-glycinate vs. Zn gluconate) after a single administration to twelve healthy female volunteers. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2007 Jul;77(4):243-8


Giorgini E et al. The use of sweet rolls fortified with iron bis-glycinate chelate in the prevention of iron deficiency anemia in preschool children. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2001 Mar;51(1 Suppl 1):48-53.


Hertrampf E and Olivares M. Iron amino acid chelates. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2004 Nov;74(6):435-43.


Jeppsen R. Toxicology and safety of Ferrochel and other iron amino acid chelates. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2001 Mar;51(1 Suppl 1):26-34.


Jeppsen RB and Borzelleca J. Safety evaluation of ferrous bisglycinate chelate. Food Chem Toxicol. 1999 Jul;37(7):723-31.


Layrisse M et al. Iron bioavailability in humans from breakfasts enriched with iron bis-glycine chelate, phytates and polyphenols. J Nutr. 2000 Sep;130(9):2195-9.


Mazariegos DI et al. The mechanisms for regulating absorption of Fe bis-glycine chelate and Fe-ascorbate in caco-2 cells are similar. J Nutr. 2004 Feb;134(2):395-8.


Melamed N et al. Iron supplementation in pregnancy–does the preparation matter? Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2007 Dec;276(6):601-4.


Miglioranza LH et al. Effect of long-term fortification of whey drink with ferrous bisglycinate on anemia prevalence in children and adolescents from deprived areas in Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Nutrition. 2003 May;19(5):419-21.


Pineda O and Ashmead HD. Effectiveness of treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in infants and young children with ferrous bis-glycinate chelate. Nutrition. 2001 May;17(5):381-4.


Pizzaro F et al. Iron bis-glycine chelate competes for the nonheme-iron absorption pathway. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Sep;76(3):577-81.


Olivares et al. Milk inhibits and ascorbic acid favors ferrous bis-glycine chelate bioavailability in humans. J Nutr. 1997 Jul;127(7):1407-11.


Osman AK and al-Othaimeen A. Experience with ferrous bis-glycine chelate as an iron fortificant in milk. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2002 Jul;72(4):257-63.


Szarfarc SC et al. Relative effectiveness of iron bis-glycinate chelate (Ferrochel) and ferrous sulfate in the control of iron deficiency in pregnant women. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2001 Mar;51(1 Suppl 1):42-7


Van Stuijvenberg ME et al. The efficacy of ferrous bisglycinate and electrolytic iron as fortificants in bread in iron-deficient school children. Br J Nutr. 2006 Mar;95(3):532-8.


Schaafsma A, et al. Positive effects of a chicken eggshell powder-enriched vitamin-mineral supplement on femoral neck bone density in healthy late post-menopausal Dutch women. Br J Nutr. 2002;87:267-275



Enzyme Research


Digestive Health and Nutrient Bioavailablity


Ehren J et al. A food-grade enzyme preparation with modest gluten detoxification properties. PLosOne 2009; 4(7):e6313.


Gass J et al. Combination enzyme therapy for gastric digestion of dietary gluten in patients with celiac sprue. Gastroenterology 2007; 133(2):472-80.


Glade MJ et al. Improvement in protein utilization in nursing-home patients on tube feeding supplemented with an enzyme product derived from Aspergillus niger and bromelain. Nutrition 2001; 17:348-50.


Layer P and Keller J. Lipase supplementation therapy: standards, alternatives and perspectives. Pancreas 2003; 26(1):1-7.


Phelan JJ et al. Coeliac disease: the abolition of gliadin toxicity by enzymes from Aspergillus niger. Clin Sci Mol Med 1977; 53: 35-43.


Popiela T et al. Double-blind pilot-study on the efficacy of enzyme therapy in advanced colorectal cancer. Przegl Lek 2000; 57(Suppl) 5:142.


Popiela T et al. Influence of a complementary treatment with oral enzymes on patients with colorectal cancers – an epidemiological retrolective cohort study. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2001 Jul; 47(Suppl):S55-S63.


Rosado JL et al. Enzyme replacement therapy for primary adult lactase deficiency. Effective reduction of lactose malabsorption and milk intolerance by direct addition of beta-galactosidase to milk at mealtime. Gastroenterology 1984;87:1072-1082.


Roxas M. The role of enzyme supplementation in digestive disorders. Alt Med Rev 2008; 13(4):307-14.v Sandberg AS. Bioavailability of minerals in legumes. Br J Nutr 2002; 88(Suppl 3):S281-S285.


Sandberg AS et al. Dietary Aspergillus niger phytase increases iron absorption in humans. J Nutr 1996; 126:476-480.


Stahl CH et al. Phytase improves iron bioavailability for hemoglobin synthesis in young pigs. J Anim Sci 1999; 77: 2135-2142.


Stepniak D et al. Highly efficient gluten degradation with a newly identified propyl endoprotease: implications for celiac disease. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006; 291(4):G621-9.



Probiotic Research


Probiotics and Eczema


Isolauri et al. Probiotics in the management of atopic eczema. Clin Exp Allergy 2000; 30(11):1604-1610.


Kalliomaki et al. “Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.” Lancet 2001; 357:1076-1079


Kirjavainen PV et al. Probiotic bacteria in the management of atopic disease: underscoring the importance of viability. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2003; 36(2):223-227.


Paterson et al. Prebiotics and synbiotics: two promising approaches for the treatment of atopic dermatitis in children above 2 years. Allergy 2006; 61(4):431-437.


Rosenfeldt V. et al. Effect of probiotics Lactobacillus strains in children with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003; 111(2):389-395.


Viljanen M. et al. Probiotics in the treatment of atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome in infants: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Allergy 2005; 60(4):494-500.


Weston S et al. Effects of probiotics on atopic dermatitis: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Dis Child 2005; 90(9): 892-897.



Probiotics and GI Problems


Bergonzelli GE et al. Probiotics as a treatment strategy for gastrointestinal diseases? Digestion 2005; 72(1):57-68.


Bezkorovainy A. Probiotics: determinants of survival and growth in the gut. Am J Clin Nutr 2001; 73:399S-405S.


Bjorksten B. The gut microbiotia and potential health effects of intervention. Nestle Ntr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program 2006; 57:81-89.


Broekart IJ and Walker WA. Probiotics and chronic disease. J Clin Gastroenterol 2006; 40(3):270-274.


Broekaert IJ and Walker WA. Probiotics as flourishing benefactors for the human body. Gastroenterol Nurs 2006; 29(1):26-34.


Doron S and Gorbach SL. Probiotics: their role in the treatment and prevention of disease. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2006; 4(2):261-275.


Floch MH et al. Recommendations for probiotics use. J Clin Gastroenterol 2006; 40(3):275-278.



Probiotics and Immunity


Arunachalam K. et al. Enhancement of natural immune function by dietary consumption of Bifidobacterium lactis. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000; 54(3):263-267.


Cunningham-Rundles S. et al. Probiotics and immune response. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95(1 suppl):S22-S25.


Delcenserie V et al. Immunomodulatory effects of probiotics in the intestinal tract. Curr Issues Mol Biol 2008;10(1-2):37-54.


Ezendam J and VanLoveren H. Probiotics: immunomodulation and evaluation of safety and efficacy. Nutr Rev 2006; 64(1):1-14.


MacDonald TT and Gordon JN. Bacterial regulation of intestinal immune responses. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2005; 34(3):401.


Madsen K. Probiotics and the immune response. J Clin Gastroenterol 2006; 40(3):232-234.


Matsuzaki T and Chin J. Modulating immune responses with probiotics bacteria. Immunol Cell Biol 2000; 78(1):67-73.


Rautava S et al. Specific probiotics in enhancing maturation of IgA responses in formula-fed infants. Pediatr Res 2006; 60(2):221-224.


Resta-Lenert S. and Barret KE. Probiotics and cemmensals reverse TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma-induced dysfunction in human intestinal epithelial cells. Gastroenterology 2006; 130(3):731-746.


Schiffirin EJ et al. Immunomodulation of Human Blood Cells Following the Ingestion of Lactic Acid Bateria. J Dairy Sci 1995; 78(3):491-497.


Schriffirin EJ et al. How can we impact the immune system with pre- and probiotics? Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Clin Perform Programme 2005; 10:203-213.


Spanhaak S. et al. The effect of consumption of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on the intestinal microflora and immune parameters in humans. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998; 52(12):899-907.


Tubelius P et al. Increasing work-place healthiness with the probiotics Lactobacillus reuteri: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Environ Health 2005; 4:25.



Probiotics and Lactose Intolerance


Montalto M. et al. Management and treatment of lactose malabsorption. World J Gastroenterol 2006; 12(2):187-191.


Levri KM et al. Do probiotics reduce adult lactose intolerance? A systematic review. J Fam Pract 2005; 54(7):613-620.


Zhong Y et al. Effect of probiotics and yogurt on the colonic microflora in subjects with lactose intolerance. Wei Sheng Yan Jui 2006; 35(5):587-591.



Probiotics and Diarrhea


Alam S and Bhatnagar S. Current status of anti-diarrheal and anti-secretory drugs in the management of acute childhood diarrhea. Indian J Pediatr 2006; 73(8):693-696.


Brusner O et al. Effect of a milk formula with probiotics on the intestinal microbiota of infants after an antibiotic treatment. Pediatr Res 2006; 59(3):451-456.


Can M et al. Prohpylactic Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antiobitic associated diarrhea: a prospective study. Med Sci Monit 2006; 12(4):PI19-22.


Correa NB et al. A randomized formula controlled trial of Bifidobacterium lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus for prevention of antiobiotic-associated diarrhea in infants. J Clin Gastroenterol 2005; 39(5):385-389.


Davidson GP. Passive protection against diarrheal disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1996; 23(3):207-212.


deRoos NM. And Katan MB. Effects of probiotics bacteria on diarrhea, lipid metabolism and carcinogenesis: a review of papers published between 1988 and 1998. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71(2):405-411.


Hawrelak JA et al. Is lactobacillus rhamnosus GG effective in preventing the onset of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a systematic review. Digestion 2005; 72(1):51-56.


Johnston BC et al. Probiotics for pediatric antiobiotic-associated diarrhea: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. CMAJ 2006; 175(4):377-383.


Johnston BC et al. Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 18(2):CD004827.


Katz JA. Probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium defficle diarrhea. J Clin Gastroenterol 2006; 40(3):249-255.


Meier RF. Probiotics: a new treatment for antiobiotic-associated bacteria? Digestion 2005; 72(1):49-50.


Rosenfeldt V. et al. Effect of probiotics Lactobacillus strains in young children hospitalized with acute diarrhea. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002; 21(5):411-416.


Rosenfeldt V et al. Effect of probiotics Lactobacillus strains on acute diarrhea in a cohort of nonhospitalized children attending day-care centers. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002; 21(5):417-419.


Salazar LE et al. Lactobacillus casei strain GG in the treatment of infants with acute watery diarrhea: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. BMC Pediatr 2004; 4:18.


Szajewska H and Mrukowicz JZ. Probiotics in the treatment and prevention of acute infections diarrhea in infants and children: a systematic review of published randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2001; 33(Suppl 2):S17-S25.


Uydens P and Debeuckelaere S. Efficacy of SF 68 in the treatment of acute diarrhea. A placebo-controlled trial. Scand J Gastroenterol 1996; 31(9):887-891.


Van Niel CW et al. Lactobacillus Therapy for Acute Infections Diarrhea in Children: A Meta-Analysis. Pediatrics 2002; 109(4):678-684.



Probiotics & H-Pylori/Ulcers


Aiba Y et al. Lactic acid-mediated suppression of Helicobacter pylori by the oral administration of Lactobacillus salivarius as a probiotics in a gnotobiotic murine model. Am J Gastroenterol 1998; 93(11):2097-2101.


Cremonin F et al. Effect of different probiotics preparations on anti-helicobacter pylori therapy related side effects: a parallel group, triple blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Gastroenterol 2002;97(11):2744-2749.


Michetti P et al. Effect of whey-based culture supernatant of Lactobacillus acidophilus (johnsonii)La1 on Helicobacter pylori infection in humans. Digestion 1999;60(3)203-209.


Sheu BS et al. Impact of supplement with Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium-containing yogurt on triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002; 16(9):1669-1675.


Sheu BS et al. Pretreatment with Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium-containing yogurt can improve the efficacy of quadruple therapy in eradicating residual Helicobacter pylori infection after failed triple therapy. Am J Clin Nutr 2006; 83(4):864-869.


Wang KY et al. Effects of ingesting Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium containing yogurt in subjects with colonized Helicobacter pylori. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 80(3):737-741.



Probiotics and IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome)


Drouault-Holowacz S et al. A double blind randomized controlled trial of probiotics combination in 100 patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 2008; 32(2):147-152.


Fan YJ et al. A probiotics treatment contain Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Enterococcus improves IBS symptoms in an open label trial. J Zhejang Univ Sci B 2006; 7(12):987-991.


Kim HJ et al. A randomized controlled trial of probiotics combination VSL#3 and placebo in irritable bowel syndrome with bloating. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2005; 17(5):687-696.


Maden JA et al. A review of the role of the gut microflora in irritable bowel syndrome and the effects of probiotics. Br J Nutr 2002; 88(Suppl 1):S67-S72.


Niv E et al. The efficacy of Lactobacillus reuteri ATC 55730 in the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome – a double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. Clin Nutr 2005; 24(6):925-931.


Nobaek S. et al. Alteration of intestinal microflora is associated with reduction in abdominal bloating and pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95(5):1231-1238.


O’Mahony L. et al. Lactobacillus and bifidobacterium in irritable bowel syndrome: symptom responses and relationships to cytokine profiles. Gastroenterology 2005; 128(3):541-551.


O’Sullivan MA and O’Morain CA. Bacterial supplementation in the irritable bowel syndrome. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Dig Liver Dis 2000; 32(4):294-301.


Saggioro A. Probiotics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. J Clin Gastroenterol 2004; 38(6 suppl):S104-S106.


Whorwell PJ et al. Efficacy of an encapsulated probitoic Bifidobacterium infantitis 35624 in women with irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 2006; 101(7):1581-1590.



Inulin Research


Abrams SA, Griffin IJ and Hawthorne KM. Young adolescents who respond to an inulin-type fructan substantially increase total absorbed calcium and daily calcium accretion to the skeleton. J Nutr 2007; 137(11 suppl):2524S-2526S.


Abrams SA et al. An Inulin-Type Fructan Enhances Calcium Absorption Primarily via an Effect on Colonic Absorption in Humans. J Nutr. 2007;137(10):2208-12.


Bodera P. Influence of prebiotics on the human immune system (GALT). Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov. 2008;2(2):149-53.


deVresse M. Health benefits of probiotics and prebiotics in women. Menopause Int. 2009;15(1):35-40.


Gibson GR et al. Prebiotics and resistance to gastrointestinal infections. Brit J Nutr 2005; 93 (Suppl 1):S31–S34.


Guarner F. Prebiotics in inflammatory bowel diseases. Br J Nutr. 2007; 98(Suppl 1):S85-9.


Holloway L et al. Effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin on intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women. Brit J Nutr 2007; 97(2):365-372.


Kelly G, Inulin-Type Prebiotics: A Review (Part 1). Alt Med Rev 2008; 13(4):315


Kelly G. Inulin-Type Prebiotics: A Review (Part 2). Alt Med Rev 2009; 14(1):36


Jenkins DJ et al. Inulin, oligofructose and intestinal function. J Nutr. 1999;129(7 Suppl):1431S-3S.


Kolida S et al. Prebiotic effects of inulin and oligofructose. Br J Nutr. 2002;87(Suppl 2):S193-7.


Leenen CH and Dieleman LA. Inulin and oligofructose in chronic inflammatory bowel disease. J Nutr 2007;137(11 Suppl):2572S-2575S.


Looijer-van Langen MA and Dieleman LA. Prebiotics in chronic intestinal inflammation. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2009;15(3):454-62.


Meyer D and Stasse-Wolthuis M. The bifidogenic effect of inulin and oligofructose and its consequences for gut health. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009; 63(11):1277-89. Watzl B, Girrbach S and Roller M. Inulin, oligofructose and immunomodulation. Br J Nutr 2005; 93(Suppl 1):S49-55.



Ginger Research


Chen JC et al. Ginger and its bioactive component inhibit enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea in mice. J Agric Food Chem 2007-55(21):8390-8397.


Ernst E and Pittler MH. Efficacy of Ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Brit J Anaesth 2000; 84 (3): 367-371. Langner E., Greifenberg S. and Gruenwald J. Ginger: history and use. Adv Ther 1998; 15(1):25-44.


Shariatpanahi ZV et al. Ginger extract reduces delayed gastric emptying and nosocomial pneumonia in adult respiratory distress syndrome patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit. J Crit Care 2010 Feb 9. epub ahead of print.


Smith C et al. A randomized controlled trial of ginger to treat nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103(4):639-45.


White B. Ginger: An overview. Am Fam Physician 2007;75:1689-91





Chang FY and Lu CL. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome using complementary and alternative medicine. J Chin Med Assoc 2009; 72(6):294-300.


Ford AC et al. Effect of fibre, antispasmodics, and peppermint oil in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2008; 337:a2313


Inamori M et al. Early effects of peppermint oil on gastric emptying: a crossover study using a continuous real-time 13C breath (BreathID system). J Gastroenterol 2007; 42(7):539-42. Epub.


McKay DL and Blumberg JB. A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of peppermint tea (Mentha piperita L.). Phytother Res 2006; 20(8):619-633.


Shen YH and Nahas R. Complementary and alternative medicine for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.Can Fam Physician 2009; 55(2):143-148.


No author listed. Herbal remedies for dyspepsia: peppermint seems effective. Prescrire Int 2008; 17(95):121-3.





Srivastava JK, Pandey M and Gupta S. Chamomile, a novel and selective COX-2 inhibitor with anti-inflammatory activity. Life Sci 2009; 85(19-20):663-9.





Lenaerts K et al. Glutamine regulates the expression of proteins with a potential health-promoting effect in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Proteomics 2006; 6(8):3454-2464.


Liboni KC et al. Glutamine modulates LPS-induced IL-8 production through IkB/NF-kB in human fetal and adult intestinal epithelium. J. Nutr. 135: 245–251, 2005.


Noe JE. L-glutamine use in the treatment and prevention of mucositis and cachexia: a naturopathic perspective. Integr Cancer Ther 2009; 8(4):409-415.


Sukhotnik I et al. Effect of oral glutamine on enterocyte turnover during methotrexate-induced mucositis in rats. Digestion 2009; 79(1):5-13.


Sukhotnik I et al. Oral glutamine prevents gut mucosal injury and improves mucosal recovery following lipopolysaccharide endotoxemia in a rat. J Surg Res 2007; 143(2):379-384.


Wischmever PE et al. Glutamine protects intestinal epithelial cells: role of inducible HSP70. Am J Physiol 1997; 272(4 pt 1):G879-84.


Yalcin SS et al. Effect of glutamine supplementation on diarrhea, interleukin-8 and secretory immunoglobulin A in children with acute diarrhea. J Pediatric Gastroenterol Nutr 2004; 38(5):494-501.



Beet root


Lee CH et al. Betalains, phase II enzyme-inducing components from red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) extracts. Nutr Cancer 2005; 53(1):91-103.


Wettasinghe M. et al. Phase II enzyme-inducing and antioxidant activities of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) extracts from phenotypes of different pigmentation. J Agric Food Chem 2002; 50(23):6704-9.


Zielinska-Pryziemska M. et al. In vitro effects of beetroot juice and chips on oxidative metabolism and apoptosis in neutrophils from obese individuals. Phytother Res 2009; 23(1):49-55.

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